Microbiology Final Exam
Review Sheet Mrs. Moss
Topics to know!
Chapter 1- Intro to
- How to name and classify microorganisms.
- What are the major types of microorganisms?
- Names of the significant players in microbiology history
- Spontaneous generation debate
- The Golden Age of Microbiology info-
- Fermentation and pasteurization
- The Germ theory of disease
- Modern Chemotherapy
- Modern developments in micro- pp 13-17
- How are microbes beneficial?
- How are microbes detrimental to us?
Chapter 14- Epidemiology
- Pathology, infection and disease- how are they related?
- What is a normal microbiota?
- What is microbial antagonism?
- Types of symbiotic relationships
- Koch’s postulates
- 3 types of reservoirs
- Modes of disease transmission- fomites, carriers,
portals of entry, portals of exit
- Nonsocomial infections
- Compromised hosts
- Endemic vs pandemic vs epidemic
- Mortality and morbidity
- How do you break the cycle?
Chapter 3- Microscopy
and Staining techniques-Most of this is from lab!
- Be able to distinguish between the different types of
- Explain the preparation of a smear for staining
- What is the difference between Simple stains,
Differential stains and special stains?
- Explain the endospore and flagella stains
- What is negative staining used for?
Chapter 4- Functional
Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
- What are the major differences between prokaryotic and
- How do we differentiate bacterial species? Think
morphology, chemical composition, nutrition, biochemistry, Energy sources
- Explain the size, shape and arrangement of bacterial
- Identify and explain the major cell structures you would
find external to the cell wall
- Compare and contrast the cell walls of Gram positive
bacteria, gram negative bacteria and archae
- What are the functions of the prokaryotic cell membrane?
Describe its structure
- Define simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis,
- What is the function of the nuclear area and inclusions?
- What is the function of an endospore?
- Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
walls and glycocalyxes
- What is the function of the cell membrane?
- List the organelles and explain their functions
- How did eukaryotes evolve according to the endosymbiotic
Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism
- Define metabolism and describe the differences between
anabolism and catabolism
- Identify the role of ATP as an intermediate between
catabolism and anabolism
- ID components of an enzyme
- List the factors that influence enzymatic activity
- Describe the mechanism of enzymatic action
- Define a ribozyme
- Explain the 3 ways to make ATP-
- Substrate level phosphorolation
- Oxidative phosphorolation
- Describe the chemical reactions of Glycolysis
- Explain the products of the Krebs cycle
- Describe how the ETS works
- Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
- Describe the chemical reactions of and list some
products of fermentation
- List and explain the various categories of nutritional
patterns according to their carbon sources
- Ex.- phototrophs, chemotrophs etc….
Chapter 6 Microbial Growth
- Classify microbes according to the preferred temperature
- ID why and how the pH of media is controlled
- Explain the importance of osmotic pressure to microbial
- Explain how microbes are classified according to their
- Define a colony
- How can pure cultures be isolated using the streak plate
- Define bacterial growth, including binary fission
- Compare the phases of microbial growth and describe
their relation to generation time
- Explain at least 4 methods of measuring cell growth e;
plate counts, serial dilutions….
- How can you estimate bacterial numbers?
Chapter 8 Microbial
- Define generics, genome, chromosome, gene, genetic code,
- Describe how DNA serves as genetic information
- Describe the process of DNA replication
- Describe the process of transcription
- Describe the process of translation
- Describe the process of RNA processing
- Explain how an inducible operon works
- Explain how a repressible operon works